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Each nucleotide is composed of one of four nitrogen-containing nucleobases (cytosine [C], guanine [G], adenine [A] or thymine [T]), a sugar called deoxyribose, and a phosphate group.

The nucleotides are joined to one another in a chain by covalent bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate of the next, resulting in an alternating sugar-phosphate backbone.

The sugars are joined together by phosphate groups that form phosphodiester bonds between the third and fifth carbon atoms of adjacent sugar rings.

These asymmetric bonds mean a strand of DNA has a direction.

Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts.

In contrast prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) store their DNA only in the cytoplasm.

Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix.

The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides.

The unique material properties of DNA have made it an attractive molecule for material scientists and engineers interested in micro- and nano-fabrication.

Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials.

In all species it is composed of two helical chains, bound to each other by hydrogen bonds.

DNA) is a molecule that carries the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

DNA and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are nucleic acids; alongside proteins, lipids and complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides), they are one of the four major types of macromolecules that are essential for all known forms of life.

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